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1.9 The ENIAC, a precursor to the ISA machine, was a decimal machine, in which each register was represented by a ring of 10 vacuum tubes. At any time, only one vacuum tube was in the ON state, representing one of the 10 decimal digits. Assuming that ENIAC had the capability to have multiple vacuum tubes in the ON and OFF state simultaneously, why is this representation “wasteful” and what range of integer values could we represent using the 10 vacuum tubes?
2.9 The owner of a shop observes that on average 18 customers per hour arrive, and there are typically 8 customers in the shop. What is the average length of time each customer spends in the shop?
3.14 A microprocessor has an increment memory direct instruction, which adds 1 to the value in a memory location. The instruction has five stages: fetch opcode (four bus clock cycles), fetch operand address (three cycles), fetch operand (three cycles), add 1 to operand (three cycles), and store operand (three cycles).
• By what amount (in percent) will the duration of the instruction increase if we have to insert two bus wait states in each memory read and memory write operation?
• Repeat assuming that the increment operation takes 13 cycles instead of 3 cycles.
4.7 A computer has a cache, main memory, and a disk used for virtual memory. If a referenced word is in the cache, 20 ns are required to access it. If it is in main memory but not in the cache, 60 ns are needed to load it into the cache, and then the reference is started again. If the word is not in main memory, 12 ns are required to fetch the word from the disk, followed by 60 ns to copy it to the cache, and then the reference is started again. The cache hit ratio is 0.9 and the main memory hit ratio is 0.6. What is the average time in nanoseconds required to access a referenced word on this system?
5.8 The Intel 80486 has an on-chip, unified cache. It contains 8 kB and has a four-way set-associative organization and a block length of four 32-bit words. The cache is organized into 128 sets. There is a single “line valid bit” and three bits, B0, B1, and B2 (the “LRU” bits), per line. On a cache miss, the 80486 reads a 16-byte line from main memory in a bus memory read burst. Draw a simplified diagram of the cache and show how the different fields of the address are interpreted.